Ultra Lightweighting, pound-for-pound the most efficient lightweighting measure in the world.
Ultra Lightweighting – the performance enhancement of lightweighting materials – is made possible by our patented product, Toroidal graphene, which is a high-performance modifier of material properties with the scientific name MNTFs. The performance enhancement is generated by an ultra low concentration of 0.001-0.01w%. Depending on customer needs, this either allows reductions in material thickness requirements of structural elements without compromising mechanical properties or it generates a stronger, stiffer material with more abrasive wear resistance and increased electrical conductivity.
With a systems-level approach, which involves considering the potential for ultra lightweighting from the beginning of the design process, it is possible to optimize the design of a 300-seat, 140-ton carbon fiber jet with a list price of $325m.
One kilogram of our product ultra-lightweights the carbon fiber parts of a 140-ton carbon fiber jet and addresses the following five primary areas of aerospace lightweighting:
• Weight savings – Our product allows for weight savings of 40% of the carbon fiber composite parts or a total of 28 tons, which equals cost savings of $8.7m.
• Fuel consumption – Our product allows for a reduction in fuel consumption by 20% or 10+ tons of fuel for a single Atlantic crossing, which equals cost savings of $10m over the life of the aircraft.
• CO2 emissions – Our product allows for a reduction in CO2 emissions by 20% or 30+ tons for a single Atlantic crossing.
• Range – Our product improves range flexibility by 20% or 2,800 km, thereby increasing the number of possible non-stop destinations around the world.
• Aircraft lightning protection – Carbon fiber composites cannot mitigate the potentially damaging electromagnetic effects from a lightning strike. The most frequently selected solution to this problem is to introduce metals back into the aircraft. The metal mesh and expanded foil added to the composite structure layup for this purpose are negating any lightweighting measures and don’t contribute to structural strength. Carbon fiber composites enhanced with our product serves as an electrical shield around the structure that protects against lightning strikes and at the same time contributes to structural strength.
Any carbon fiber manufacturer with T800-level carbon fiber could with the help of our product surpass the current world leader in carbon fiber composites, Toray of Japan, by more than 30% or nearly 1,000 MPa, which will be the biggest leap in the evolution of carbon fiber composites in over 30 years.
Competing technologies in the mechanical property modifiers of carbon fiber composites based on polymer matrices segment of the plastics additives industry are mainly based on Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D graphene.
CNTs and 2D graphene are both amazing materials with incredible properties – in their original pristine form. However, CNTs have been used as an additive in tens of thousands of attempts to modify mechanical properties of carbon fiber composites and 2D graphene is still only at the beginning of its journey from material to technology.
Torus vs Tube: Semi-scientific demonstration of the lifebouy-shape of Toroidal graphene that provide a micro-mechanical flotation device-style interlocking adding to the degree of efficiency as a modifier of composite properties as opposed to the detrimental sliding of the atomically smooth walls of the CNTs against the macromolecules of the surrounding polymer matrix, which eventually will cause stress concentration and crack initiation.
The Toroidal graphene radar chart total of 580 outscores the heavily hyped nanomaterials CNTs (250) and 2D graphene (185).
1. The unique physical properties and topology of Toroidal graphene eliminates the need for surface modification (functionalization) for composite matrix integration.
2. Toroidal graphene is less susceptible than CNTs to fracture or deformation by the shear stresses imparted upon them in the dispersion and deagglomeration process. Also, because of the lifebuoy-shape, Toroidal graphene agglomeration when suspended in liquids is more manageable being free from the problematic ‘snake-pit’ entanglement of CNTs.
3. Scalable 2D graphene production is a challenge.
4. Toroidal graphene has successfully achieved TRL 9 as a nanomaterial and TRL 4 (lab environment) as a modifier of mechanical properties of carbon fiber composites: SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden has conducted independent tests of the compression module on a component made of carbon fiber composite modified by our product, which verified a performance enhancement of over 40% compared to Japanese world-leading carbon fiber manufacturer Toray.
5. Toroidal graphene is patented.
6. Hype constitutes the bulk of the 2D graphene radar chart score.
7. The loading concentration efficiency of Toroidal graphene is ‘off the charts’ (0.001 – 0.01 w%), making it pound-for-pound the most efficient lightweighting measure in the world.
Toroidal graphene is a unique patented nanomaterial consisting of 20-50 toroidal layers of carbon atoms arranged in hexagonal lattice structures with a diameter of 15-150 nm. The toroidal graphene layers in our nanomaterial are infinite by nature because of the circular geometry and devoid of rough, imperfect outer layer edges. The scientific name of Toroidal graphene is MNTFs (Multi-layer carbon nanoparticle of toroid form).
The modifier capability of Toroidal graphene is originating from the presence of an uninterrupted conjugated system of delocalized π-electrons.
Synergistic interactions of fluctuating polarizations of sp2-hybridized π-orbitals in the contributing structures of the toroidal layers create conditions for giant resonances in the electromagnetic field of the system with an amplification factor of up to several orders of magnitude (3×10^4). The torque created by the giant resonances modifies and redirects van der Waals interactions, and in the case of carbon fiber composites, it triggers a control phenomenon at the interface between the carbon fibers and the matrix.
Polymerization and crystal formation processes are affected by the van der Waals-forces which are organizing or rather modifying the direction or orientation of the surrounding macromolecules into a 10 microns thick interfacial layer of perpendicularly oriented polymer chains.
The interfacial layer improves the level of elastic deformation, binds free energy, contributes to overall system stability and enables stress transfer and dissipation for increased resistance to external loading.
Our product has the highest loading concentration efficiency in the additive industry (0.001 – 0.01 w%), and is not application- or system-intrusive, meaning it can seamlessly integrate into any existing manufacturing process with minimal negative impact on matrix viscosity and curing schedules.
Examples of performance enhancements generated by our product in carbon fiber composites:
• Tensile strength of carbon fiber composite is improved by 40%.
•This is a tool holder for turning made of carbon fiber composite modified at 0.005w% concentration. It allows turning at 200,000 rpm with a maximum tool deflection of 2 mm. A tool holder of steel can’t be used at 200,000 rpm as it would have a tool deflection of 40 mm at that speed.
SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden conducted independent testing of the compression modulus of the tool holder, which verified a performance enhancement of over 40% compared to Japanese world-leading carbon fiber manufacturer Toray.
Examples of performance improvements generated by our product in other materials:
• This is a grinding support made of bronze modified at 0.005w% concentration.
The component was tested by Thyssen in Germany under real operational conditions (TRL level 7). The test showed an improvement in abrasive wear resistance of 500%.
• Hardnesss of bronze is improved by 40%.
• Electrical conductivity of bronze is improved by 375%.
• Chemical resistance to nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is improved by 400%.
• A pervaporation membrane was produced by the thermoplastic material PPO modified at a 0.01 wt% loading concentration. Mechanical testing showed an improvement in biaxial tensile strength of 85%.
Our product is produced from recycled residue products of Carbon nanotube production, has the lowest loading concentration in the additive industry, and allows ultra lightweighting through reduction of material thickness requirements, which in turn enables reduction of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere.
The production process reduces the use of raw materials, which means the Earth’s limited resources are used in a sustainable manner while minimizing environmental impact. The product thus has the potential to contribute to an environmentally sustainable society according to at least the following global sustainability goals in the UN Development Program UNDP by 2030: i) to achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources; ii) to substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse; and iii) to strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries.