Key to electrification
The unique selling point of our patented product, Toroidal graphene, is the capacity to boost the electrical conductivity of copper to quantifiable improvements of 300-375%, a level that exceeds industry demands and significantly outperforms our main competitor, 2D graphene, and translates into tangible benefits such as increased energy efficiency and reduced carbon emissions, which aligns with sustainability goals and supports the green transition.
The performance enhancement capability of Toroidal graphene has been documented by us in several industrial case studies, where components made of composite materials nano-structured by Toroidal graphene at concentrations of 0.0025-0.01wt% was demonstrated under real operational conditions (TRL-level 7):
•A tool holder for turning was made of nano-structured carbon fiber composite. In demonstrations it allowed turning at 200,000 rpm with a maximum tool deflection of 2 mm, which is an improvement by a factor of 20 compared to steel. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden conducted independent testing of the compression modulus of the tool holder, which verified a performance enhancement of over 40% compared to Japanese world-leading carbon fiber manufacturer Toray.
• A grinding support made of nano-structured bronze (tin copper) was tested by Thyssen in Germany. The test showed an improvement in abrasive wear resistance of 500% compared to Thyssen’s grinding supports. Hardness and electrical conductivity improvements were measured to 40% and 375%, respectively. The size of the improvement in electrical conductivity by adding such ultra-low concentrations of our product proves that the toroidal graphene molecule has an intrinsic electrical conductivity of at least 600-750 times higher than copper.
• A pervaporation membrane for separating azeotropic mixtures made of nano-structured thermoplastic (PPO) didn’t influence the pervaporation properties but showed an improvement in biaxial tensile strength of 85%.
• Chemical resistance to nuclear waste in borosilicate glass, nano-structured with our product, has been measured to 400% improvement.
• Laboratory environment feasibility studies have shown improvements in tensile strength of epoxy by 39%; in flexural modulus of T700 carbon fiber fabric by 45%, which is equivalent to T1300-level; and in flexural modulus of engineering plastics by 54%.
• In an experimental study to find a substitute for the toxic beryllium copper, beryllium was replaced by our product. Mechanical properties were preserved, and electrical conductivity improved by 300%.
The toroidal graphene molecule is a nano-scientifically engineered carbon allotrope, consisting of 30-40 defect-free graphene layers free from function-group content, geometrically fixed in a closed conjugated system, with delocalized pi-electrons interacting freely in circular motion in the closed loop of the cyclic structure instead of being occupied in pi-bonds with adjacent graphene layers. Thus, the toroidal graphene molecule exhibits delocalization of pi-electrons across the entire molecule.
Raman spectroscopy and Maxwell’s theorem reveal that the synergistic interactions of the closed loop of pi-electrons create conditions for giant resonance with an electromagnetic field amplification factor of up to 30,000.
Extreme electron mobility together with exceptional structural and thermal integrity makes Toroidal graphene the ideal nanostructuring agent for enhancing composite materials such as metal alloys, engineering plastics, and carbon fiber.
When toroidal graphene molecules are placed in a composite matrix with an individual space of approximately 1.5-2 cubic microns, van der Waals forces amplified by the giant resonance will trigger a more aligned internal material structure according to the direction of the magnetic field, as well as a denser, more compact interfacial layer between the toroidal graphene molecule and the composite matrix, which is addressing electron mobility.
The interfacial layer binds free energy, contributes to overall system stability and enables stress transfer and dissipation for increased resistance to external loading.
In the case of carbon fiber composites, an interfacial layer is formed around the carbon fibers as well.
Competing technologies in the nanomaterial industry are mainly based on Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or 2D graphene, which both are amazing materials with incredible properties - in their original pristine form.
CNTs have been used as an additive in tens of thousands of attempts to modify materials and recent exits from this market include Bayer AG which described the potential applications of CNTs as ‘fragmented with comprehensive commercialization not likely in the foreseeable future’.
Various forms of functionalized 2D graphene
2D graphene was awarded the Nobel prize in 2010. However, commercialization of 2D graphene into industrial applications with high-entry barriers has been slow. Several production and incorporation issues need to be addressed before more advanced sectors opt for 2D graphene. Continuous R&D activities around the globe are attempting to solve the challenges associated with synthesizing 2D graphene composites by exploring various forms of functionalized 2D graphene such as graphene flakes (GNF), graphene oxide (GO), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP).
Torus vs Tube: Semi-scientific demonstration by the co-founder of the lifebuoy-shape of the toroidal graphene molecule that provides a micro-mechanical flotation device-style interlocking adding to the degree of efficiency as a nano-structuring agent as opposed to the detrimental sliding of the atomically smooth walls of the CNTs, which eventually will cause stress concentration and crack initiation.
The Toroidal graphene radar chart total of 580 outscores the heavily hyped nanomaterials CNTs (250) and 2D graphene (185).
1. The unique physical properties and topology of Toroidal graphene eliminates the need for surface modification (functionalization) for composite matrix integration.
2. Toroidal graphene is less susceptible than CNTs to fracture or deformation by the shear stresses imparted upon them in the dispersion and deagglomeration process. Also, because of the lifebuoy-shape, Toroidal graphene agglomeration when suspended in liquids is more manageable being free from the problematic ‘snake-pit’ entanglement of CNTs.
3. Scalable 2D graphene production is a challenge.
4. Toroidal graphene has successfully achieved TRL 9 (technology system proven in operational environment) as a nanomaterial and TRL 7 (component demonstration in operational environment) as a modifier of mechanical properties of several composite materials.
5. Toroidal graphene is patented.
6. Hype constitutes the bulk of the 2D graphene radar chart score.
7. The loading concentration efficiency of Toroidal graphene is ‘off the charts’ (0.001 – 0.01 w%), making it pound-for-pound the most efficient lightweighting measure in the world.
Our product has the highest loading concentration efficiency in the additive industry (0.001 – 0.01 w%), and is not application- or system-intrusive, meaning it can seamlessly integrate into any existing manufacturing process with minimal negative impact on matrix viscosity and curing schedules.
With a systems-level approach, which involves considering the potential for ultra lightweighting from the beginning of the design process, it is possible to optimize the design of a 300-seat, 140-ton carbon fiber jet with a list price of $325m.
One kilogram of our product ultra-lightweights the carbon fiber parts of a 140-ton carbon fiber jet and addresses the following five primary areas of aerospace lightweighting:
• Weight savings – Our product allows for weight savings of 40% of the carbon fiber composite parts or a total of 28 tons, which equals cost savings of $8.7m.
• Fuel consumption – Our product allows for a reduction in fuel consumption by 20% or 10+ tons of fuel for a single Atlantic crossing, which equals cost savings of $10m over the life of the aircraft.
• CO2 emissions – Our product allows for a reduction in CO2 emissions by 20% or 30+ tons for a single Atlantic crossing.
• Range – Our product improves range flexibility by 20% or 2,800 km, thereby increasing the number of possible non-stop destinations around the world.
• Aircraft lightning protection – Carbon fiber composites cannot mitigate the potentially damaging electromagnetic effects from a lightning strike. The most frequently selected solution to this problem is to introduce metals back into the aircraft. The metal mesh and expanded foil added to the composite structure layup for this purpose are negating any lightweighting measures and don’t contribute to structural strength. Carbon fiber composites enhanced with our product serves as an electrical shield around the structure that protects against lightning strikes and at the same time contributes to structural strength.
Any carbon fiber manufacturer with T800-level carbon fiber could with the help of our product surpass the current world leader in carbon fiber composites, Toray of Japan, by more than 30% or nearly 1,000 MPa, which will be the biggest leap in the evolution of carbon fiber composites in over 30 years.
The achievement of performance enhancement of graphene composites is
dependent on the efficiency of the load transfer from the matrix to the filler,
which is, in turn, governed by (i) the dispersion of graphene into the matrix, (ii) the interfacial bonding, (iii) the presence of structural defects in graphene, (iv) the number of carbon layers in graphene, (v) the presence of defects in the final product (e.g. porosity and cavities), (vi) the orientation of graphene in relation to the loading direction, and (vii) the formation of carbide at the graphene outer layer edges.
i. The difficulties of integrating pristine graphene into a matrix due to poor dispersion and irreversible aggregation have led to numerous solutions for increased compatibility, e.g., oxidation and functionalization, which ultimately disrupts the structure causing loss of intrinsic properties of graphene.
The exceptional electromagnetic properties and the unique topology of Toroidal graphene essentially eliminate the need for surface modification for matrix integration and enable use of ultra-low concentrations. The lower volume fraction enables uniform matrix dispersion with large contact areas and interfaces between the toroidal graphene molecules and the composite matrix, which yields an individual space of approx. 1-2 µm3 for influencing internal material structure at meso level. With a concentration of 0.005 wt% in the composite matrix, the toroidal graphene molecules will be at just the right distance from each other to influence without reagglomerating.
ii. Obtaining an effective interfacial bonding is difficult due to the poor affinity of graphene to several lightweight materials that do not wet graphene and therefore covalent bonding is not possible and no reactions take place between the matrix and graphene, which leaves van der Waals interactions and mechanical adhesion as mechanisms for interfacial bonding.
Toroidal graphene addresses weak van der Waals interactions as well as weak mechanical adhesion. Toroidal graphene is a closed and uninterrupted conjugated system. Delocalized pi-electrons of the toroidal graphene layers move constantly between the outer limits within the system and thereby a resonance structure arises where the electromagnetic charge or polarization of the system fluctuates together with the negatively charged pi-electrons.
Theoretical studies show that synergistic interaction of the fluctuating polarization across the toroidal graphene layers creates conditions for giant resonance in the electromagnetic field of the system with an amplification factor of up to 30,000. Amplified van der Waals forces, under influence of giant resonance, trigger a more aligned internal material structure according to the direction of the magnetic field, as well as promoting the formation of a
denser, more compact interfacial layer, which improves interfacial properties and resistance to interfacial shift in the matrix. The interfacial layer binds free energy, contributes to overall system stability, and improves stress transfer and dissipation for increased resistance to external loading. The structure of Toroidal graphene with micro-mechanical flotation device-style interlocking with the matrix also plays a role in enhancing the mechanical adhesion, which in turn leads to better load transfer.
iii. Graphene can easily become damaged for example during the fabrication conditions used for metallic materials including high temperatures and pressures, and thus potentially weaken the intrinsic properties of graphene.
Toroidal graphene exhibits exceptional structural and thermal stability with resistance to graphitization at 3000°C as well as barometric resistance up to at least 50 kbar.
iv. The composites are filled with unwanted multi-layer graphene. Experimental measurements show that the mechanical properties of graphene depend strongly on the number of layers. In particular, the properties of graphene decline with increasing number of layers, devolving from those of graphene to those of graphite, and thus, the load-carrying capability gradually decreases. This has been attributed to the easy shear between the graphene layers caused by weak pi-bonds.
The closed conjugated system of Toroidal graphene makes shear between graphene layers virtually impossible, which is a feature that contributes positively to the strength of composite materials.
v. Composites may contain structural defects such as pores and cavities, which cause ineffective distribution of reinforcement within the matrix alloy, and thus, reinforcement does not dominate the matrix properties. Since pores and cavities create stress concentration, they overrule the reinforcement performance by developing a non-uniform stress field, which produces less effective reinforcing conditions.
The internal material structuring generated by Toroidal graphene addresses resistance to internal processing defects like porosity.
vi. Graphene is not preferentially oriented along the loading direction in the composites. This means that a randomly oriented distribution disturbs the unidirectional load transfer mechanism, reducing the strength efficiency of graphene since the mechanical properties of graphene-based composites are controlled not only by its exceptional in-plane properties, but also by its out-of -plane properties.
The circular geometry of Toroidal graphene makes it more likely that the out of-plane properties will match the in-plane properties.
vii. The defect-dense outer layer edges of graphene, where the hexagonal lattice structure is interrupted, can in the case of graphene-aluminum composites act as reaction sites to promote carbide formation, which can have damaging influence on properties on these composites.
Toroidal graphene is, as a consequence of the circular geometry, devoid of rough, outer layer edges.
Our product’s capability to enhance the electrical conductivity of copper aligns with multiple United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030, particularly in the areas of industry, innovation, and infrastructure; clean energy; and responsible consumption and production.
- Affordable and Clean Energy (SDG 7):
- Improved electrical conductivity can enhance the efficiency of electrical systems, reducing energy loss during transmission and distribution.
- Higher conductivity allows for more efficient energy generation, contributing to the goal of affordable and clean energy.
- Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure (SDG 9):
- Enhanced electrical conductivity can lead to the development of more efficient and innovative electrical infrastructure and technologies.
- Improved conductivity can contribute to the advancement of electric vehicles, renewable energy systems, and smart grids, supporting sustainable industrialization and infrastructure development.
- Responsible Consumption and Production (SDG 12):
- By increasing the efficiency of electrical systems, the product can contribute to reduced resource consumption and waste associated with energy production and transmission.
- The enhanced conductivity may lead to longer-lasting and more reliable electrical components, promoting sustainable consumption patterns.
- Climate Action (SDG 13):
- Increased electrical conductivity can contribute to the development and adoption of cleaner energy technologies, thereby mitigating the impact of climate change.
- Efficient energy transmission and reduced energy loss can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy production and consumption.
- Partnerships for the Goals (SDG 17):
- Collaborations between the manufacturers of the product, the copper industry, and other stakeholders can foster partnerships aimed at achieving sustainable development goals.
- Sharing knowledge and technologies related to enhanced electrical conductivity can contribute to a collective effort to address global challenges.